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Author: Brian Wu, MD candidate, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA. DermNet New Zealand Editor in Chief: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand. December 2016.
Boat building is a significant global industry, especially in countries where fishing, shipping and related maritime industries are economically important. However, the nature of boat-building work puts workers at risk for occupational dermatoses. In one study of boat builders in New Zealand, it was found that 26% of the workers had some form of skin disease. In another study, boat building was listed among the professions at highest risk for occupational skin disorders.
A high risk of occupational skin disease in boat builders is due to:
An occupational skin disorder is a skin condition that is due to, or is made worse by, the nature of one’s work or occupation. The most common forms of occupational skin disorder are contact dermatitis (both allergic contact dermatitis and contact irritant dermatitis), skin cancer, skin infections and injuries (wounds). These disorders occur when mechanical, biological or chemical agents undermine the integrity of the skin’s protective barrier and leave it more vulnerable to breakdown or infection.
While the risk of getting an occupational skin disorder is reduced with personal protective equipment, some people may need to change their occupation if they are found to be resistant to treatment.
Contact dermatitis is the most common skin disorder among boat builders.
Chemical burns are another risk for boat builders, due to the number of chemicals used.
Mechanical injuries are also common in the boat building trade. This is partly due to the heavy manual labour required for work in this industry.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation or sunburn is another risk for boat builders.
Workplace risk assessments should be formulated to reduce exposure to hazards at the source whenever possible. When this cannot be done, the path of exposure should be blocked or workers should be educated to use various forms of personal protective equipment to keep themselves safe. An exposure control plan may alter the industrial process, invest in employee training and education, improve the working environment and implement a skin care programme to protect against occupational dermatoses.
Because of its hazardous nature, the boat building industry requires the use of extensive personal protective equipment, including:
Personal protective equipment must be part of a larger worker safety programme. Employees need to understand the nature of the chemicals they are working with, their risk for exposure and safety measures they need to take to protect themselves.
Hand care advice for those in the boat building sectors includes:
Diagnosis of an occupational skin disorder or disease should be based on a meticulous physical examination, knowledge of the individual’s job (including the nature of the work, length of stay on the job and particular potential exposures), and their personal/medical history, with an emphasis being placed on a history of allergies or atopy (especially atopic eczema). Patch testing may be required.
Treatment of skin disorders can include:
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