DermNet NZ

Facts about the skin from DermNet New Zealand Trust. Topic index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

About DermNet NZ

DermNet New Zealand is owned by the DermNet New Zealand Trust. Our website, DermNetNZ.org, presents authoritative facts about the skin for consumers and health professionals in New Zealand and throughout the world. We include hundreds of illustrated topics about skin diseases and conditions, dermatopathology, treatments and procedures. We also have continuing medical education pages and quizzes.

Our information is written and reviewed by dermatologists, other health professionals and medical writers. Access to DermNet NZ is free via the internet. Do you want to help?

During 2016, we will be upgrading to a mobile-responsive, content management system with improved keyword search capability, mouse-over definitions of dermatological terms, and other improvements.

Associate Professor Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Website Manager, and Chief Editor, DermNet NZ
10 April 2016


Dr Amanda Oakley (centre, below) was honoured for developing DermNet NZ by Women's Dermatologic Society, 7 June 2015, where she received the prestigious WDS Pioneer Award at the World Congress of Dermatology in Vancouver, Canada from WDS President Dr Kathleen Hectorne (left) and International Affairs Chair, Dr Rashmi Sarkar (right). On 6 November 2015, she was awarded Honorary Membership by MelNet New Zealand.

Dr Amanda Oakley receives Women's Dermatologic Society International Pioneer Award, Vancouver June 2015 from WDS President Dr Kathleen Hectorne (left) and International Affairs Chair, Dr Rashmi Sarkar (right) Dr Amanda Oakley receives Women's Dermatologic Society International Pioneer Award, Vancouver June 2015 from WDS for DermNet New Zealand Dr Amanda Oakley received Women's Dermatologic Society International Pioneer Award, Vancouver June 2015 from WDS for DermNet New Zealand

DermNet New Zealand Trust

The DermNet New Zealand Trust is incorporated by New Zealand Companies Office, Certificate of Incorporation number 2591483. It is a registered Charity, Registration Number CC50036. The affairs of the DermNet New Zealand Trust are run by its Trustees.

DermNet New Zealand Trustees 2013–2017
Chairperson Website Manager
Dr Marius Rademaker Dr Marius Rademaker
Honorary Associate Professor, Waikato Clinical Campus, University of Auckland
Clinical Director, Dermatology, Waikato District Health Board

* More about Dr Rademaker ...
Dr Amanda Oakley Dr Amanda Oakley
Honorary Associate Professor, Waikato Clinical Campus, University of Auckland
Dermatologist, Waikato District Health Board

* More about Dr Oakley...
Secretary Treasurer
Dr Anthony Yung Dr Anthony Yung
Dermatologist, Waikato District Health Board

* More about Dr Yung...
Dr Sandra Winhoven Dr Sandra Winhoven
Dermatologist, Skin Centre, Tauranga

* More about Dr Winhoven...

*Profiles on New Zealand Dermatological Society website

History of DermNet NZ

DermNet NZ was originally launched in March 1996 as the website of the New Zealand Dermatological Society Incorporated (NZDS). The DermNet New Zealand Trust took over management of the website in October 2013.

The story began with a lunchtime presentation about the Internet in September 1995, at the NZDS annual meeting. The event was sponsored by Schering AG and described a demonstration site, DermNet.org.nz. The DermNet Development Group was born: Dr Duffill, Dr Oakley, Dr Rademaker, Dr Birchall and Dr Baird set to work to create an authoritative online resource—a sort of public library.

Before long, we employed a summer student to upload Waikato Hospital Department of Dermatology information sheets for patients (written by DermNet's inaugural Chairperson, Dr Mark Duffill) and to scan hundreds of transparency slides to illustrate them. Over time it became clear that we needed to change our focus to health professionals, who were looking for up-to-date quick summaries for their own needs, as well as to print out information pages for their patients.

It's been great fun over the last 20 years overseeing the development of the world's most popular dermatology resource, loved by dermatologists, primary care physicians, students and patients. It has been our passion to steadily expand the number of topics, adding continuing medical education topics in 2005, and beginning a dermatopathology library in 2010. We have enjoyed helping medical students and dermatology trainees publish their first articles. Many are based in New Zealand, but others have contributed from UK, USA, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. Most have been volunteers, but we have also employed some professional writers from time to time. We have enhanced our social media presence on Twitter and Facebook in 2016, with the help of New Zealand dermatologist, Victoria Scott-Lang.

Thanks very much to our corporate and individual sponsors and advertisers; without your help, we would never have achieved our aims.

The future for DermNet NZ

So what's next? By mid-2016, we expect to have upgraded to a content management system to make the editorial team's work easier, with a responsive system to please our mobile readers (and Google's algorithms). Next up, we'll add a dermatoscopy atlas. Watch out for an electronic and print book, based on DermNet New Zealand's most popular topic pages. We are consolidating our partnership with Waikato District Health Board.

Sadly, developing the site costs money: we'll be running donation drives—please give generously—and we'll be expanding our advertising portfolio. Our thousands of clinical images are very frequently used in presentations, journal articles, posters, smartphone apps, websites and blogs; we are planning an online image shop, to streamline purchases of DermNet NZ and Waikato DHB's unwatermarked dermatology clinical images at various resolutions.

Do you want to help?

Please let us know if you want to help with DermNet NZ's development or you can provide us with fully consented clinical images.

Editorial policy

DermNet NZ aims:

  • To provide authoritative information about the skin:
    • All content reviewed by dermatologists
    • Information written by dermatologists, dermatology trainees and professional medical writers, unless otherwise specified
    • Dates of authorship and updates recorded
  • To be readily accessible and easy to navigate:
    • Format read by majority of currently used browsers
    • Low resolution graphics to enhance download
    • Uniform formatting throughout site
    • Minimise internal and external link errors and other miscoding
    • Plain English to accommodate a variety of health literacy levels
    • Search facility accesses entire site (Google Custom Search)
  • To comply with the recommendations of:
This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.

We use a British English dictionary. Often, we add American spelling to key words and phrases for clarity.

Despite the best of intentions, we may include content that is incorrect, out of date, or inappropriate for the individual concerned. Our information should not be used to replace consultation with a dermatologist or other experienced health provider. We use Google's translation service to broaden access to non-English readers, but we are conscious that it's not always accurate.

For in-depth information about individual skin diseases, refer to Medscape Reference Dermatology Articles or one of the major conventional published references. You can buy your books—and anything else you need—through our Amazon store.


Images have been supplied by Assoc Prof Amanda Oakley, Waikato District Health Board, Dr Professor Raimo Suhonen (Finland), members of the NZDSI, or as otherwise noted.


DermNet NZ may access content from other organisations, when these are consistent with our editorial policy.

We include RSS skin care news feeds from eMaxHealth and Medical News Today.

Privacy policy

Confidentiality of data relating to individual patients and visitors, including their identity, is respected by DermNet NZ. DermNet NZ undertakes to honour or exceed the legal requirements of medical/health information privacy that apply in New Zealand.

Our web site is using cookies, as we are using Google Analytics to analyse the audience of the website and improve our content. No personal information is collected from Google Analytics. For further information on the privacy policy concerning Google Analytics, please go here, http://www.google.com/analytics/learn/privacy.html. You can turn off cookies in your browser, if you wish.

Disclaimer, copyright and use of images

Refer to DermNet NZ's Disclaimer and Copyright statements.

The images available for licensed use by external agencies are listed on our image catalogue.


DermNet NZ is funded by donations, advertising, non-directed sponsorship and image licensing.

Advertising policy

DermNet NZ accepts advertising providing it is relevant to dermatology, ethical, and DermNet NZ has approved its format and content. Non-directed sponsorship and donations are also welcomed.

Sponsors do not influence content. Advertising is clearly separated from the editorial content and identified as such. Acknowledgement of a sponsor or advertiser does not imply any endorsement or recommendation of that company’s products by the DermNet NZ or the DermNet New Zealand Trust.


eHealthcare Solutions represents the digital advertising opportunities on DermNet NZ in the USA, as well as hundreds of quality publishers in the logo-homehealthcare vertical. If you are interested in advertising on dermnetnz.org, please submit this form and an EHS sales representative will contact you shortly. Phone: +1 (609) 882 –8887 ext 1. Sales@ehsmail.com.

If you are not based in the USA but would like to advertise on DermNet NZ, please contact us directly.

DermNet NZ's visitors

The website has been hosted on MediaTemple.net servers since March 2004. Since 2012, we have welcomed more than one million visitors viewing more than three million pages of dermatology topics each month. Mobile traffic is an exciting new trend extending our reach to all parts of the world.

Author: Dr Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Website Manager and Chief Editor, Hamilton, New Zealand. Updated April 2016.

Monthly visitors to DermNet NZ
Location of visitors accessing DermNet NZ in March 2016

DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service.
If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice.