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Dermatology, COVID-19 Infection, and SARS-CoV-2 Vaccinations: Selected 2021 Reference List

Created April 2021.

Latest Update  28 October 2021

In the 12 months from March 2020, more than 1500 articles relating to COVID-19 infection and/or vaccination and the skin have been published. We cannot all keep up with this rate of publication.

DermNet will try to provide a selected list of recent relevant references with links to free online journal articles. This list will not be exhaustive.

Review Articles on Mucocutaneous Effects of COVID-19

Aragoneses J, Suárez A, Algar J, Rodríguez C, López-Valverde N, Aragoneses JM. Oral manifestations of COVID-19: updated systematic review with meta-analysis. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:726753.  doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.726753 Journal 

Burlando M, Russo R, Cozzani E, Parodi A. Six months into the pandemic. A review of skin manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(1):e14641. doi:10.1111/dth.14641. Journal

Farid H, Khan M, Jamal S, Ghafoor R. Oral manifestations of Covid-19-A literature review. Rev Med Virol. 2021;e2248. doi:10.1002/rmv.2248 Journal 

Genovese G, Moltrasio C, Berti E, Marzano AV. Skin manifestations associated with COVID-19: current knowledge and future perspectives. Dermatology. 2021;237(1):1-12. doi:10.1159/000512932 Journal

Gisondi P, Di Leo S, Bellinato F, Cazzaniga S, Piaserico S, Naldi L. Time of onset of selected skin lesions associated with COVID-19: a systematic review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021;1–11. doi:10.1007/s13555-021-00526-8. Journal

González González F, Cortés Correa C, Peñaranda Contreras E. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19: clinical characteristics and possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2021;112(4):314-23. doi:10.1016/j.adengl.2021.01.024 Journal

Iranmanesh B, Khalili M, Amiri R, Zartab H, Aflatoonian M. Oral manifestations of COVID-19 disease: a review article. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(1):e14578. doi:10.1111/dth.14578. Journal

Jamshidi P, Hajikhani B, Mirsaeidi M, Vahidnezhad H, Dadashi M, Nasiri MJ. Skin manifestations in COVID-19 patients: are they indicators for disease severity? A systematic review. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:634208. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.634208. Journal

Le Cleach L. Dermatology and COVID-19: Much knowledge to date but still a lot to discover. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2021;S0151-9638(21)00030-2. doi:10.1016/j.annder.2021.03.001. Journal

McMahon DE, Gallman AE, Hruza GJ, et al. Long COVID in the skin: a registry analysis of COVID-19 dermatological duration. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(3):313–14. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30986-5. Journal

Mirza FN, Malik AA, Omer SB, Sethi A. Dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19: a comprehensive systematic review. Int J Dermatol. 2021;60(4):418-50. doi:10.1111/ijd.15168 Journal 

Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med. 2021;27(4):601-15. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z Journal 

Novak N, Peng W, Naegeli MC, et al. SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, skin and immunology - what do we know so far?. Allergy. 2021;76(3):698-713. doi:10.1111/all.14498 Journal

Shams S, Rathore SS, Anvekar P, et al. Maculopapular skin eruptions associated with Covid-19: a systematic review. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(2):e14788. doi:10.1111/dth.14788. Journal

Sharma S, Raby E, Prasad Kumarasinghe S. Cutaneous manifestations and dermatological sequelae of Covid-19 infection compared to those from other viruses. Australas J Dermatol. 2021;10.1111/ajd.13561. doi:10.1111/ajd.13561. Journal

Singh H, Kaur H, Singh K, Sen CK. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: a systematic review. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2021;10(2):51–80. doi:10.1089/wound.2020.1309. Journal

Tan SW, Tam YC, Oh CC. Skin manifestations of COVID-19: a worldwide review. JAAD Int. 2021;2:119–33. doi:10.1016/j.jdin.2020.12.003. PubMed Central

Tomsitz D, Biedermann T, Brockow K. Skin manifestations reported in association with COVID-19 infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2021;19(4):530-4. doi:10.1111/ddg.14353 Journal 

Tsuchiya H. Oral symptoms associated with COVID-19 and their pathogenic mechanisms: a literature review. Dent J (Basel). 2021;9(3):32. doi:10.3390/dj9030032. Journal

Wang CJ, Worswick S. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19. Dermatol Online J. 2021;27(1):13030/qt2m54r7nv. Journal 

Wollina U, Kanitakis J, Baran R. Nails and COVID-19 - A comprehensive review of clinical findings and treatment. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(5):e15100. doi:10.1111/dth.15100 Journal 

Hospitalised Adults with COVID-19

Brunasso AMG, Castellaneta M, Pontali E, Raggi F, Massone C. Follow-up of skin lesions during COVID-19: a description of a DRESS case. Arch Dermatol Res. 2021;313(7):607-10. doi:10.1007/s00403-020-02171-1 Journal 

Hocková B, Riad A, Valky J, et al. Oral complications of ICU patients with COVID-19: case-series and review of two hundred ten cases. J Clin Med. 2021;10(4):581. doi:10.3390/jcm10040581. Journal

Jimenez-Cauhe J, Ortega-Quijano D, Carretero-Barrio I, et al. Erythema multiforme-like eruption in patients with COVID-19 infection: clinical and histological findings. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2020;45(7):892–5. doi:10.1111/ced.14281. Journal

Méndez Maestro I, Peña Merino L, Udondo González Del Tánago B, et al. Skin manifestations in patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 disease: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital. Int J Dermatol. 2020;59(11):1353–7. doi:10.1111/ijd.15180. Journal

Nuno-Gonzalez A, Martin-Carrillo P, Magaletsky K, et al. Prevalence of mucocutaneous manifestations in 666 patients with COVID-19 in a field hospital in Spain: oral and palmoplantar findings. Br J Dermatol. 2021;184(1):184–5. doi:10.1111/bjd.19564. Journal

Pal R, Singh B, Bhadada SK, et al. COVID-19-associated mucormycosis: an updated systematic review of literature. Mycoses. 2021;10.1111/myc.13338. doi:10.1111/myc.13338 Journal 

Rekhtman S, Tannenbaum R, Strunk A, et al. Eruptions and related clinical course among 296 hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;84(4):946–52. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2020.12.046. Journal

Siegel A, Al Rubaiay A, Adelsheimer A, Haight J, Gawlik S, Oropallo A. Pedal gangrene in a patient with COVID-19 treated with prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech. 2021;10.1016/j.jvscit.2021.02.013. doi:10.1016/j.jvscit.2021.02.013. Journal

Team V, Team L, Jones A, Teede H, Weller CD. Pressure injury prevention in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;7:558696. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.558696. Journal

Skin Rashes with COVID-19

Pagali S, Parikh RS. Severe urticarial rash as the initial symptom of COVID-19 infection. BMJ Case Rep. 2021;14(3):e241793. doi:10.1136/bcr-2021-241793 Journal

Pangti R, Gupta S, Nischal N, Trikha A. Recognizable vascular skin manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are uncommon in patients with darker skin phototypes. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;46(1):180-2. doi:10.1111/ced.14421 Journal 

Visconti A, Bataille V, Rossi N, et al. Diagnostic value of cutaneous manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Br J Dermatol. 2021;10.1111/bjd.19807. doi:10.1111/bjd.19807. Journal

Nieto-Benito LM, Hernández de la Torre-Ruiz E, Balaguer-Franch I, et al. Histopathological findings in COVID-19-induced cutaneous lesions. Clinicopathological correlation of SARS-CoV-19 dermatologic patterns: review of the literature. Australas J Dermatol. 2021;62(1):e98–e101. doi:10.1111/ajd.13442. Journal

Fattori A, Cribier B, Chenard MP, Mitcov M, Mayeur S, Weingertner N. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: clinical and histological findings. Hum Pathol. 2021;107:39–45. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2020.10.011. Journal

García-Gil MF, Monte Serrano J, García García M, Matovelle Ochoa C, Ara-Martín M. Granuloma annulare triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The first reported case. J Dermatol. 2021;48(1):e1–e2. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.15594. Journal

Monte-Serrano J, García-Gil MF, García-García M, Casas-Flecha I, Matovelle-Ochoa C, Ara-Martín M. Granuloma annulare triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection: Immunohistochemical staining. Dermatol Ther. 2021;e14897. doi:10.1111/dth.14897. Journal

McMahon DE, Gallman AE, Hruza GJ, et al. Long COVID in the skin: a registry analysis of COVID-19 dermatological duration. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(3):313-14. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30986-5 Journal 

Chilblain-like Lesions with COVID-19

Moghadam P, Frumholtz L, Jaume L, et al. Frequency of relapse and persistent cutaneous symptoms after a first episode of chilblain-like lesion during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021;10.1111/jdv.17393. doi:10.1111/jdv.17393 Journal 

Discepolo V, Catzola A, Pierri L, et al. Bilateral chilblain-like lesions of the toes characterized by microvascular remodeling in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(6):e2111369.  doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11369 Journal

Kashetsky N, Mukovozov IM, Bergman J. Chilblain-like lesions (CLL) associated with COVID-19 ("COVID Toes"): a systematic review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021;12034754211004575. doi:10.1177/12034754211004575. Journal

Cappel MA, Cappel JA, Wetter DA. Pernio (Chilblains), SARS-CoV-2, and COVID toes unified through cutaneous and systemic mechanisms. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021;96(4):989-1005. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.009. Journal

Bassi A, Russo T, Argenziano G, et al. Chilblain-like lesions during COVID-19 pandemic: the state of the art. Life (Basel). 2021;11(1):23. doi:10.3390/life11010023. Journal

Piccolo V, Bassi A, Russo T, et al. Chilblain-like lesions and COVID-19: second wave, second outbreak. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021;10.1111/jdv.17145. doi:10.1111/jdv.17145. Journal

Magro CM, Mulvey JJ, Laurence J, et al. The differing pathophysiologies that underlie COVID-19-associated perniosis and thrombotic retiform purpura: a case series. Br J Dermatol. 2021;184(1):141–50. doi:10.1111/bjd.19415. Journal

Le Cleach L, Dousset L, Assier H, et al. Most chilblains observed during the COVID-19 outbreak occur in patients who are negative for COVID-19 on polymerase chain reaction and serology testing. Br J Dermatol. 2020;183(5):866–74. doi:10.1111/bjd.19377. Journal

Cline A, Berk-Krauss J, Keyes Jacobs A, et al. The underrepresentation of "COVID toes" in skin of color: an example of racial bias or evidence of a tenuous disease association?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;84(2):e91–2. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2020.11.003. Journal

Mucosal Lesions and COVID-19

Brandini DA, Takamiya AS, Thakkar P, Schaller S, Rahat R, Naqvi AR. Covid-19 and oral diseases: crosstalk, synergy or association? Rev Med Virol. 2021;10.1002/rmv.2226. doi:10.1002/rmv.2226. Journal

Eghbali Zarch R, Hosseinzadeh P. COVID-19 from the perspective of dentists: a case report and brief review of more than 170 cases. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(1):e14717. doi:10.1111/dth.14717 Journal

Falkenhain-López D, Agud-Dios M, Ortiz-Romero PL, Sánchez-Velázquez A. COVID-19-related acute genital ulcers. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020;34(11):e655–6. doi:10.1111/jdv.16740. Journal

Martín Carreras-Presas C, Amaro Sánchez J, López-Sánchez AF, Jané-Salas E, Somacarrera Pérez ML. Oral vesiculobullous lesions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Oral Dis. 2021;27 Suppl 3:710-712. doi:10.1111/odi.13382 Journal 

Nuño González A, Magaletskyy K, Martín Carrillo P, et al. Are oral mucosal changes a sign of COVID-19? A cross-sectional study at a field hospital. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2021;S0001-7310(21)00107-1. doi:10.1016/ PubMed Central

Santosh ABR, Muddana K, Bakki SR. Response to Commentary: fungal infections of oral cavity: diagnosis, management, and association with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 14]. SN Compr Clin Med. 2021;1-2. doi:10.1007/s42399-021-01033-9 Journal 

Soares CD, Mosqueda-Taylor A, de Carvalho MGF, de Almeida OP. Oral vesiculobullous lesions as an early sign of COVID-19: immunohistochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Br J Dermatol. 2021;184(1):e6. doi:10.1111/bjd.19569. Journal

Children with COVID-19

Andina D, Belloni-Fortina A, Bodemer C, et al. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 in children: Part 1. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;46(3):444–50. doi:10.1111/ced.14481. Journal

Andina D, Belloni-Fortina A, Bodemer C, et al. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 in children: Part 2. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;46(3):451–61. doi:10.1111/ced.14482. Journal

Andina D, Belloni-Fortina A, Bodemer C, et al. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 in children: Part 3. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;46(3):462–72. doi:10.1111/ced.14483. Journal

Zhang QY, Xu BW, Du JB. Similarities and differences between multiple inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 and Kawasaki disease: clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment. World J Pediatr. 2021;1-6. doi:10.1007/s12519-021-00435-y Journal 

Rekhtman S, Tannenbaum R, Strunk A, Birabaharan M, Wright S, Garg A. Mucocutaneous disease and related clinical characteristics in hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;84(2):408–14. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2020.10.060. Journal

Sert A. A response to "Mucocutaneous disease and related clinical characteristics in hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children”. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;S0190-9622(21)00487-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2021.02.076. Journal

Young TK, Shaw KS, Shah JK, et al. Mucocutaneous manifestations of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Dermatol. 2021;157(2):207–12. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.4779. Journal

Halepas S, Lee KC, Myers A, Yoon RK, Chung W, Peters SM. Oral manifestations of COVID-2019-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a review of 47 pediatric patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 2021;152(3):202–8. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2020.11.014. Journal

Metbulut AP, Özkaya Parlakay A, Bayhan Gİ, et al. Evaluation of cutaneous symptoms in children infected with COVID-19. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2021;10.1111/pai.13467. doi:10.1111/pai.13467. Journal

Swali RN, Lee EB, Adams JL. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome in the setting of recent coronavirus disease-19 infection. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021;10.1111/pde.14518. doi:10.1111/pde.14518. Journal

Larenas-Linnemann D, Luna-Pech J, Navarrete-Rodríguez EM, et al. Cutaneous manifestations related to COVID-19 immune dysregulation in the pediatric age group. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2021;21(2):13. doi:10.1007/s11882-020-00986-6. Journal

Hubiche T, Phan A, Leducq S, et al. Acute acral eruptions in children during the COVID-19 pandemic: characteristics of 103 children and their family clusters. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2021;S0151-9638(21)00005-3. doi:10.1016/j.annder.2020.11.005. Journal

Kumar G, Pillai S, Norwick P, Bukulmez H. Leucocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to COVID-19 infection in a young child. BMJ Case Rep. 2021;14(4):e242192. doi:10.1136/bcr-2021-242192 Journal

COVID-19 and Dermatology Patients

Wang C, Rademaker M, Tate B, Baker C, Foley P. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccination in dermatology patients on immunomodulatory and biologic agents: Recommendations from the Australasian Medical Dermatology Group. Australas J Dermatol. 2021;10.1111/ajd.13593. doi:10.1111/ajd.13593. Journal

Ferretti F, Cannatelli R, Benucci M, et al. How to manage COVID-19 vaccination in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: an expert opinion by IMIDs Study Group. Front Immunol. 2021;12:656362.  doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.656362 Journal 

Mahil SK, Dand N, Mason KJ, et al. Factors associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with psoriasis-insights from a global registry-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021;147(1):60–71. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.10.007. Journal

Gisondi P, Piaserico S, Naldi L, et al. Incidence rates of hospitalization and death from COVID-19 in patients with psoriasis receiving biological treatment: a Northern Italy experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021;147(2):558–60.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.10.032. Journal

Gelfand JM, Armstrong AW, Bell S, et al. National Psoriasis Foundation COVID-19 Task Force guidance for management of psoriatic disease during the pandemic: Version 2-Advances in psoriatic disease management, COVID-19 vaccines, and COVID-19 treatments. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;84(5):1254–68. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2020.12.058. Journal

Shahidi Dadras M, Diab R, Ahadi M, Abdollahimajd F. Generalized pustular psoriasis following COVID-19. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(1):e14595. doi:10.1111/dth.14595. Journal

Kamiya K, Komine M, Ohtsuki M. Biologics for psoriasis during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Med. 2021;10(7):1390. doi:10.3390/jcm10071390. Journal

Damiani G, Gironi LC, Kridin K, et al. Mask-induced Koebner phenomenon and its clinical phenotypes: a multicenter, real-life study focusing on 873 dermatological consultations during COVID-19 pandemics. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(2):e14823. doi:10.1111/dth.14823. Journal

Beytout Q, Pepiot J, Maruani A, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with psoriasis. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2021;S0151-9638(21)00027-2. doi:10.1016/j.annder.2021.01.005. Journal

Patrick MT, Zhang H, Wasikowski R, et al. Associations between COVID-19 and skin conditions identified through epidemiology and genomic studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021;147(3):857–69.e7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2021.01.006. Journal

de Wijs LEM, Joustra MM, Olydam JI, Nijsten T, Hijnen DJ. COVID-19 in patients with cutaneous immune-mediated diseases in The Netherlands: real-world observational data. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021;35(3):e173–6. doi:10.1111/jdv.17025. Journal

Flanagan KE, Pathoulas JT, Walker CJ, et al. Immunosuppressive therapies for alopecia areata during COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey study. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(2):e14762. doi:10.1111/dth.14762. Journal

Saxena S, Khurana A, B S, et al. Severe type 2 leprosy reaction with COVID-19 with a favourable outcome despite continued use of corticosteroids and methotrexate and a hypothesis on the possible immunological consequences. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;103:549–51. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.024. Journal

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccinations

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403–16. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. Journal

Banerji A, Wickner PG, Saff R, et al. mRNA vaccines to prevent COVID-19 disease and reported allergic reactions: current evidence and suggested approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021;9(4):1423–37. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.047. Journal

Bergwerk M, Gonen T, Lustig Y, et al. Covid-19 breakthrough infections in vaccinated health care workers  N Engl J Med. 2021;10.1056/NEJMoa2109072. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2109072 Journal 

Blumenthal KG, Freeman EE, Saff RR, et al. Delayed large local reactions to mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(13):1273–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2102131. Journal

Castells MC, Phillips EJ. Maintaining safety with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(7):643–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMra2035343. Journal

CDC COVID-19 Response Team; Food and Drug Administration. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine - United States, December 21, 2020–January 10, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(4):125–9. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7004e1. Journal

Coto-Segura P, Fernández-Prada M, Mir-Bonafé M, et al. Vesicolous-bullous skin reactions induced by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: report of four cases and review of the literature. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;10.1111/ced.14835. doi:10.1111/ced.14835 Journal 

Furer V, Zisman D, Kibari A, Rimar D, Paran Y, Elkayam O. Herpes zoster following BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases: a case series. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021;keab345. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keab345. Journal

Haberman RH, Herati RS, Simon D, et al. Methotrexate hampers immunogenicity to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Preprint. medRxiv. 2021;2021.05.11.21256917. Published 2021 May 12. doi:10.1101/2021.05.11.21256917 PubMed Central 

Soyfer V, Gutfeld O, Shamai S, Schlocker A, Merimsky O. COVID-19 vaccine-induced radiation recall phenomenon. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021;S0360-3016(21)00233-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.048. Journal

Filler Reactions Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination

Gotkin RH, Gout U, Sattler S, et al. Global recommendations on COVID-19 vaccines and soft tissue filler reactions: a survey-based investigation in cooperation with the International Society for Dermatologic and Aesthetic Surgery (ISDS). J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(4):374–8. doi:10.36849/JDD.2021.6041. Journal

Munavalli GG, Guthridge R, Knutsen-Larson S, Brodsky A, Matthew E, Landau M. COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein-related delayed inflammatory reaction to hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: a challenging clinical conundrum in diagnosis and treatment. Arch Dermatol Res. 2021;1–15. doi:10.1007/s00403-021-02190-6. Journal

Munavalli GG, Knutsen-Larson S, Lupo MP, Geronemus RG. Oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for treatment of delayed inflammatory reaction to dermal hyaluronic acid fillers following COVID-19 vaccination-a model for inhibition of angiotensin II-induced cutaneous inflammation. JAAD Case Rep. 2021;10:63–8. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2021.02.018. PubMed Central

Allergic Reactions to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines

Cabanillas B, Novak N. Allergy to COVID-19 vaccines: a current update. Allergol Int. 2021;70(3):313-18. doi:10.1016/j.alit.2021.04.003 Journal 

Kounis NG, Koniari I, de Gregorio C, et al. Allergic reactions to current available COVID-19 vaccinations: pathophysiology, causality, and therapeutic considerations. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(3):221. doi:10.3390/vaccines9030221. Journal

Novak N, Tordesillas L, Cabanillas B. Adverse rare events to vaccines for COVID-19: From hypersensitivity reactions to thrombosis and thrombocytopenia [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jul 12]. Int Rev Immunol. 2021;1-10. doi:10.1080/08830185.2021.1939696 Journal 

Nilsson L, Csuth Á, Storsaeter J, Garvey LH, Jenmalm MC. Vaccine allergy: evidence to consider for COVID-19 vaccines. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021;21(4):401-9. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000762 Journal 

Sokolowska M, Eiwegger T, Ollert M, et al. EAACI statement on the diagnosis, management and prevention of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Allergy. 2021;10.1111/all.14739. doi:10.1111/all.14739. Journal

Treatments for COVID-19

Popp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, et al. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;7(7):CD015017. Published 2021 Jul 28. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2 Journal 


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