What is poikiloderma of Civatte?
Poikiloderma of Civatte is a benign, common and chronic condition, which belongs to the group of melanodermas (pigmented skin disorders). The term 'poikiloderma' refers to a skin change with atrophy where hypopigmentation/hyperpigmentation changes and dilation of the fine blood vessels (telangiectasia) can be seen in the affected skin.
The condition was first described in 1923 by a French dermatologist named Civatte.
Poikiloderma of Civatte
Who gets poikiloderma of Civatte?
Poikiloderma of Civatte is most common among middle-aged and elderly fair-skinned individuals, especially among those who are significantly exposed to the sun. The highest frequency is seen among postmenopausal women. The incidence is unknown since many patients have a mild form of the disease and may not seek medical advice.
What is the cause of poikiloderma of Civatte?
The exact cause is unknown. Long-term sun exposure is considered to be a main contributing factor. Other factors are:
- Fair skin (Fitzpatrick skin phototype I and II)
- Photosensitising components of cosmetics and toiletries, especially perfumes
- Hormonal changes related to menopause or low oestrogen levels
- A genetic predisposition.
What are the clinical features of poikiloderma of Civatte?
Poikiloderma of Civatte is characterised by confluent reddish-brown patches with atrophy that symmetrically involve sun-exposed areas such as the sides of the neck and lateral aspect of the cheeks. Poikiloderma of Civatte usually spares the shaded area under the chin.
What are the complications of poikiloderma of Civatte?
Poikiloderma of Civatte is usually asymptomatic but some patients can feel mild burning, itching, episodic flushing and sensitive skin in the affected area. No systemic involvement or severe complications are associated with poikiloderma of Civatte.
How is poikiloderma of Civatte diagnosed?
The diagnosis of poikiloderma of Civatte is made clinically. A punch biopsy can show typical histology with hyperkeratosis, epidermal atrophy, pigmentary incontinence, telangiectasia, a variable superficial dermal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, and solar elastosis.
What is the differential diagnosis for poikiloderma of Civatte?
The differential diagnosis for poikiloderma of Civatte includes Riehl melanosis, erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli, and:
What is the treatment for poikiloderma of Civatte?
Medical treatment for this condition remains challenging. The patient should be educated about avoiding sun exposure and the correct use of sunscreen. The results of the treatment may be disappointing.
- Sun protection including daily broad-spectrum SPF 50+ sunscreen
- Avoid all perfumes on or near the affected area, including those in soap
- Hydroquinone-containing preparations may help fade the pigmentation
- Hydrocortisone cream (a mild topical steroid) applied twice daily for 2–4 months
- Topical retinoids could be beneficial if used for about a year.
- Alpha hydroxy-acids can reduce brown pigmentation.
- Pulsed dye laser treatment and intense pulsed light (IPL) are reported to be the best way to reduce the telangiectasia and pigmentation
- Fractional nonablative laser treatment may improve the vascular, pigmented and textural components of poikiloderma of Civatte.
What is the outcome for poikiloderma of Civatte?
Poikiloderma of Civatte is a chronic and irreversible condition. The hyperpigmentation of the skin can cause cosmetic disfigurement and responds poorly to available treatments.